Glossary of Terms Used

Glossary of Terms Used

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Term or AbbreviationSemantic
3GLThird Generation Language.
Intermediate-leveled and generalist language. For example, C++.
4GLFourth Generation Language.
High-leveled language that is usually specialized on the development of human-machine interfaces. For example, Visual Basic.
5GLFifth Generation Language.
High-leveled, pseudo-natural, self-defining, multi-facet and enhancement able language. For example, Up ! 5GL.

A

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
ActualizationProjection of an amount to a given date taking account the cost of time according to the forecasted risk. For example, for a borrowing, the interest rate that is yearly applied.
APIApplication Program Interface.
Norm to interface with the modules of an application. The logic is that this norm be stable in time while the modules are evolving.

B

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
B2BBusiness-to-Business.
Commercial relationship between two firms.
B2CBusiness-to-Consumer.
Commercial relationship from a firm to a particular consumer.
BAMBusiness Activity Monitoring.
Operational and light optimization of a set of activities in opposition with Business Process Reengineering.
BIBusiness Intelligence.
Generic and parameter-able vertical software dedicated to data analysis, mostly for a financial purpose. For example, SAS.
Big endianByte encoding that puts the lower byte first.
BPIBusiness Process Integration.
Recovering of the IT existing to set up new processes, in opposition with the reengineering of the information system.
BPRBusiness Process Reengineering.
Operational and deep reengineering of a set of activities that very used in the 1980's.

C

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
CEOChief Executive Officer.
General director in charge of making proposal to the Supervision Board and applying the strategic plan accepted by the one.
CFOChief Finance Officer.
Deputy director in charge of general accounting, treasury, cost analysis and funds raising.
CMOChief Marketing Officer.
Deputy director in charge of strategic marketing, survey and operational marketing.
COOChief Operating Officer.
Deputy director in charge of purchasing, production, logistics and human resources.
COOChief Sales Officer.
Deputy director in charge of sales, partnerships and services after sale.
CTOChief Technology Officer.
Deputy director in charge of technologies, techniques and Research & Development.
CISCComplex Instruction Set Chip.
Processor beholding binary high-leveled instructions, such as Intel's Pentium.
CLICall Level Interface.
Public norm to interface software with a database.
It was used and enhanced by Microsoft to build the Odbc norm.
COMComponent Object Module.
Object-oriented middle-ware whose goal is to organize the applications in modules interconnected in client-supplier relationships.
This norm is the property of Microsoft.
CORBACommon Object Request Broker Architecture.
Object-oriented middle-ware whose goal is to organize the applications in modules interconnected in client-supplier relationships.
This norm is the property of the Object Management Group (OMG).
CRMCustomer Relationship Management.
Generic and parameter-able vertical software dedicated to the clients following. For example, Siebel.

D

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
DCOMDistributed Component Object Module.
Enhancement of the Component Object Module (COM) norm in order to offer remote services.
DDEDynamic Data Exchange.
Norm to interchange data between applications.
It is the property of Microsoft
Despair valleyLearning period for which an individual or a team is less performing while the time to master what is new.

E

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
EAIEnterprise Application Integration.
Technical software realizing of standard allowing the interconnection of applications of the enterprise. For example, WebMethods or Xml.
EBITDAEarning Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization.
Operating margin realized once the production and selling costs are removed from the turnover, not taking into account amortizing, financing charges.
ElasticityVariation of the demand in percent for a variation of one per cent of the price.
ENSIMAGEcole Nationale Supérieure d'Ingénieurs en Mathématique Appliquée de Grenoble.
French high school educating engineers specialized in information technologies - hardware, operating system and fundamental software, etc.
ERPEnterprise Resource Planer.
Generic and parameter-able vertical software dedicated to the management of firms. For example, SAP.

F

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
FTPFile Transmission Protocol.
Protocol to transfer files based on TCP, which is used for Internet.

G

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
GPFGeneral Protection Fault.
Message sent by Windows when an application is living a fatal pitfall.

H

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
HMIHuman Machine Interface.
Interface between the user and the application. The most ergonomic interfaces are graphical ones and mainly for Windows.
HTMLHyper Text Markup Language.
Norm to build documents based on markups, which is used for Internet.
HTTPHyper Text Transfer Protocol.
Protocol to transfer resources beholding links between them and based on TCP, which is used for Internet.

I

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
IDEIntegrated Development Environment.
Pleasant interface to develop programs based on a human-machine interface unifying an editor, a compiler, a debugger and several other tools. For example, WSAD.
INPGInstitut National Polytechnique de Grenoble.
Scientist place and universities to which belongs the Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Ingénieurs en Mathématique Appliquée de Grenoble (ENSIMAG).
IPInternet Protocol.
Protocol to communicate through a low-leveled IT network on which is based Internet.
IPCInter Process Call.
Low-leveled standard to synchronize processes that are performed on a same computer. It especially used by COM and CORBA.

J

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
J2EEJava 2 Enterprise Edition.
Technical platform targeting firms to build Internet / Intranet applications. This is enhanced version of J2SE
J2MEJava 2 Mobile Edition.
Technical platform targeting industries to be embedded as an operating system. This a simple version of J2SE
J2SEJava 2 Enterprise Edition.
Technical platform that is independent of hardware and base software, which was first build by Sun Microsystem.

L

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
Little endianByte encoding that puts the upper byte first.

M

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
MBAMaster Of Business Administration.
Education cycle coming from the US for the top executives of international firms.
General degree in strategy, finance, marketing, operations, human resources, international, economics, communication, etc.

N

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
NFSNetwork File System.
Norm to share files between computers based on TCP.
ICNTInformation and Communication New Technologies.
They come from Internet wave and they were pushed by the deregulation of the telecom business line in Europe.

O

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
OcéaneObligations Convertibles par échange d'Actions Existantes ou Nouvelles Emises - Convertible bonds into existing or to be issued shares.
OCIOracle Call Interface.
Private norm to interface software with the Oracle kernel.
ODBCOpen Database Connectivity.
Public norm to interface software with data sources. It enhances the CLI norm.
It is the property of Microsoft.
OLEObject Link Embedded.
Norm to compound documents using the object-oriented programming.
Its is the property of Microsoft.
OMGObject Management Group.
American, non-profitable and multi-parties consortium whose objective is to state norms for object-oriented programming.

P

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
PaybackDate to which the revenue of an investment over goes the expenses due to the one, without taking into account the actualization.
PosixPortability Operating Systems Interface.
Norm defining the Application Program Interfaces (API) with the operating system for the C language.

R

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
RCEReturn on Capital Engaged.
Operating margin divided by the financing resources of the firm.
RDBMSRelational Database Management System.
RISCReduce Instruction Set Chip.
Processor beholding elementary binary instructions, such as 68xxx of Motorola.
ROIReturn on Investment.
Created value that is evaluated by actualizing the financing flows coming from the revenues and the expenses limited to an investment. It is often misused with the Payback.
RMIRemote Method Invocation.
Adaptation of the RPC norm for Java.
RPCRemote Process Call.
Low-leveled standard to call services between processes performing on two computers. It is especially used by COM and by CORBA.

S

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
S2OStrategy-to-Operations.
Application to make the business modeling and the operational meta piloting, in order to use the set-up of the strategy of the firm by integrating the instable choices forecasted for the life duration of the last one - organization / processes, technical resources and human resources.
SASociété Anonyme - Anonymous company.
SARLSociété A Risque Limité - Limited risk company.
SASSociété Anonyme Simplifiée - Anonymous and simplified company.
SCSociété Civile - Civil company.
SQLStructured Query Language.
Fouth generation language dedicated to relational databases.
SSIISociété de Services et d'Ingénierie en Informatique - IT services company.

T

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
TCOTotal Cost of Ownership.
Total cost to arrange a system including the designing, realizing, deploying, change management and maintaining stages.
TCPTransmission Control Protocol.
Protocol to communicate through an IT multi-services network. It is the most spread.

U

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
UMLUnified Modeling Language.
Norm to model an IT application in a object-oriented way to design, to realize and to deploy.
UnicodeUniversal norm to encode symbols used for any languages and any dialects.

V

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
VBAVisual Basic Application.
Script language to realize automating macro functions into the Office suite of Microsoft.
Vertical softwareInterconnection of technical software to build an IT solution on which will be based as a memory the organization of one or more activities of the firm.

W

Term or AbbreviationSemantic
W3CWorld Wide Web Consortium.
American, non-profitable and multi-parties consortium whose objective is to state norms about to Internet.
WPCWork Prime Contractor.
People in charge of realizing the project i.e. IT department or services company.
WPOWork Prime Organizer.
People ordering the project i.e. the final user or the top management.
WYSIWYGWhat You See Is What You Get.
Principle applied by some human-machine interfaces in order to exactly present on the screen what the user should get in reality.